Default Folder X 5.7.2
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on the buttons to go to your favorite and recently used folders, manage the folders and files shown in the list, and make changes to your settings. It also fixes a number of problems in Open and Save dialogs, "rebounding" to the last selected file, putting the path listing back in the top menu, and correcting bugs in scrolling column views.
Default Folder X 5.7.2
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any macOS-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on the buttons to go to your favorite and recently used folders, manage the folders and files shown in the list, and make changes to your settings. It also fixes a number of problems in Open and Save dialogs, "rebounding" to the last selected file, putting the path listing back in the top menu, and correcting bugs in scrolling column views.Features
It attaches a toolbar to the right side of the "Open and Save" dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You click the buttons to go to your favorite and recently used folders, manage the folders and files shown in the list, and make changes to your settings.
In MySQL 5.7.11, the default --early-plugin-load value is the name of the keyring_file plugin library file, causing that plugin to be loaded by default. In MySQL 5.7.12 and higher, the default --early-plugin-load value is empty; to load the keyring_file plugin, you must explicitly specify the option with a value naming the keyring_file plugin library file.
By default, mysql_upgrade runs as the MySQL root user. If the root password is expired when you run mysql_upgrade, it displays a message telling you that your password is expired and that mysql_upgrade failed as a result. To correct this, reset the root password to unexpire it and run mysql_upgrade again. First, connect to the server as root:
Read not only the usual option groups, but also groups with the usual names and a suffix of str. For example, mysql_upgrade normally reads the [client] and [mysql_upgrade] groups. If this option is given as --defaults-group-suffix=_other, mysql_upgrade also reads the [client_other] and [mysql_upgrade_other] groups.
The password of the MySQL account used for connecting to the server. The password value is optional. If not given, mysql_upgrade prompts for one. If given, there must be no space between --password= or -p and the password following it. If no password option is specified, the default is to send no password.
Check the version of the server to which mysql_upgrade is connecting to verify that it is the same as the version for which mysql_upgrade was built. If not, mysql_upgrade exits. This option is enabled by default; to disable the check, use --skip-version-check.
To use R under Windows the procedure tofollow is basically the same. Create a folder as the working directory,and set that in the Start In field in your R shortcut.Then launch R by double clicking on the icon.
Arguments to seq(), and to many other R functions, can alsobe given in named form, in which case the order in which they appear isirrelevant. The first two arguments may be namedfrom=value and to=value; thusseq(1,30), seq(from=1, to=30) and seq(to=30,from=1) are all the same as 1:30. The next two arguments toseq() may be named by=value andlength=value, which specify a step size and a length forthe sequence respectively. If neither of these is given, the defaultby=1 is assumed.
The paste() function takes an arbitrary number of arguments andconcatenates them one by one into character strings. Any numbers givenamong the arguments are coerced into character strings in the evidentway, that is, in the same way they would be if they were printed. Thearguments are by default separated in the result by a single blankcharacter, but this can be changed by the named argument,sep=string, which changes it to string,possibly empty.
which does indicate a significant difference, assuming normality. Bydefault the R function does not assume equality of variances in thetwo samples.We can use the F test to test for equality in the variances,provided that the two samples are from normal populations.
In many cases arguments can be given commonly appropriate defaultvalues, in which case they may be omitted altogether from the call whenthe defaults are appropriate. For example, if fun1 were definedas
The class of an object determines how it will be treated by what areknown as generic functions. Put the other way round, a genericfunction performs a task or action on its arguments specific tothe class of the argument itself. If the argument lacks any classattribute, or has a class not catered for specifically by the genericfunction in question, there is always a default action provided.
Conversely the number of classes a generic function can handle can alsobe quite large. For example the plot() function has a defaultmethod and variants for objects of classes "data.frame","density", "factor", and more. A complete list can be gotagain by using the methods() function:
In all cases each term defines a collection of columns either to beadded to or removed from the model matrix. A 1 stands for anintercept column and is by default included in the model matrix unlessexplicitly removed.
Although the answer is already complicated, it is not the whole story.First, if the intercept is omitted in a model that contains a factorterm, the first such term is encoded into k columns giving theindicators for all the levels. Second, the whole behavior can bechanged by the options setting for contrasts. The defaultsetting in R is
The main reason for mentioning this is that R and S havedifferent defaults for unordered factors, S using Helmertcontrasts. So if you need to compare your results to those of a textbookor paper which used S-PLUS, you will need to set
The display is then an ANOVA table showing the differences between thefitted models when fitted in sequence. The fitted models being comparedwould usually be an hierarchical sequence, of course. This does notgive different information to the default, but rather makes it easier tocomprehend and control.
If y is the number of blind at age x and n thenumber tested, both models have the formy B(n, F(beta_0 + beta_1 x))where for the probit case,F(z) = Phi(z)is the standard normal distribution function, and in the logit case(the default),F(z) = e^z/(1+e^z).In both cases the LD50 isLD50 = - beta_0/beta_1that is, the point at which the argument of the distribution function iszero.
With the Poisson family the default link is the log, and inpractice the major use of this family is to fit surrogate Poissonlog-linear models to frequency data, whose actual distribution is oftenmultinomial. This is a large and important subject we will not discussfurther here. It even forms a major part of the use of non-gaussiangeneralized models overall.
The coplot() and pairs() function both take an argumentpanel= which can be used to customize the type of plot whichappears in each panel. The default is points() to produce ascatterplot but by supplying some other low-level graphics function oftwo vectors x and y as the value of panel= you canproduce any type of plot you wish. An example panel function useful forcoplots is panel.smooth().
Waits for the user to select locations on the current plot using theleft mouse button. This continues until n (default 512) pointshave been selected, or another mouse button is pressed. Thetype argument allows for plotting at the selected points and hasthe same effect as for high-level graphics commands; the default is noplotting. locator() returns the locations of the points selectedas a list with two components x and y.
A separate list of graphics parameters is maintained for each activedevice, and each device has a default set of parameters wheninitialized. Graphics parameters can be set in two ways: eitherpermanently, affecting all graphics functions which access the currentdevice; or temporarily, affecting only a single graphics function call.
Character to be used for plotting points. The default varies withgraphics drivers, but it is usuallya circle.Plotted points tend to appear slightly above or below the appropriateposition unless you use "." as the plotting character, whichproduces centered points.
Axis styles for the x and y axes, respectively. Withstyles "i" (internal) and "r" (the default) tick marksalways fall within the range of the data, however style "r"leaves a small amount of space at the edges.
mar and mai are equivalent in the sense that setting onechanges the value of the other. The default values chosen for thisparameter are often too large; the right-hand margin is rarely needed,and neither is the top margin if no title is being used. The bottom andleft margins must be large enough to accommodate the axis and ticklabels. Furthermore, the default is chosen without regard to the sizeof the device surface: for example, using the postscript() driverwith the height=4 argument will result in a plot which is about50% margin unless mar or mai are set explicitly. Whenmultiple figures are in use (see below) the margins are reduced, howeverthis may not be enough when many figures share the same page.
Outer margins are particularly useful for page-wise titles, etc. Textcan be added to the outer margins with the mtext() function withargument outer=TRUE. There are no outer margins by default,however, so you must create them explicitly using oma oromi.
Control whether saved images (file .RData in the directory whereR was started) should be restored at startup or not. The default isto restore. (--no-restore implies all the specific--no-restore-* options.) 041b061a72