Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether typically developing children and adolescents (aged 3-18 years) who have participated in school-based interventions have sustained outcomes in PA, fitness, and/or FMS.
Results: The search identified 14 articles, and some studies addressed multiple outcomes: 13 articles assessed PA; three assessed fitness; and two assessed FMS. No study in this review met four key methodological criteria that have been shown to influence results, i.e., clarity on the randomization process, assessor blinding, analyzing participants in their original groups, and retaining sufficient participants through the entire study. Three-quarters (ten of 13) of the studies addressing PA, reported PA behavior change maintenance. The length of follow-up ranged from 6 months to 20 years, and the degree of PA difference reported was between 3 and 14 min per day. Only one of the three studies assessing fitness reported a sustained impact, whilst both studies that assessed FMS reported maintenance of effects.
Conclusion: It is likely that PA is a sustainable outcome from interventions in children and adolescents, and there is reasonable evidence that interventions of longer than 1 year and interventions that utilize a theoretical model or framework are effective in producing this sustained impact. It would seem probable that FMS are a sustainable outcome in children and adolescents; however, this finding should be viewed with caution given the lack of studies and the risk of bias assessment. More research is needed to assess the sustainability of fitness interventions as this review only included a handful of studies that addressed fitness and only one of these studies found a sustained impact.
A systematic search of the literature was performed to compare the effects of interventions that targeted sedentary behaviours or physical activity (PA) or physical fitness on primary prevention of obesity in 6- to 12-year-old children. The search identified 146 reports that provided relevant data for meta-analysis. Point estimates in % body fat were higher for fitness interventions compared with PA interventions (standardized mean difference = -0.11%; 95% CI = -0.26 to 0.04, and -0.04%; 95% CI = -0.15 to 0.06, respectively). Including sedentary behaviour to a PA- or fitness-oriented intervention was not accompanied by an increase in intervention effectiveness, as the point estimates were slightly smaller compared with those for PA- or fitness-only interventions. Overall, the effects tended to be larger in girls than in boys, especially for PA + sedentary behaviour interventions. There was some evidence for inequality, as the effects on body mass index were seen when interventions were delivered in the general population (standardized mean difference = -0.05, 95% CI = -0.07 to -0.02), but not in groups of disadvantaged children (standardized mean difference = -0.01, 95% CI = -0.29 to 0.19). In conclusion, school-based PA interventions appear to be an effective strategy in the primary prevention of childhood obesity among 6- to 12-year-old children, but targeting sedentary behaviour in addition to PA or fitness does not increase the effectiveness of the intervention.
About 65,500 openings for fitness trainers and instructors are projected each year, on average, over the decade. Many of those openings are expected to result from the need to replace workers who transfer to different occupations or exit the labor force, such as to retire.
Fitness trainers and instructors work with individual clients or prepare or choreograph their own group classes. They may do a variety of tasks in addition to their fitness duties, such as managing the front desk, signing up new members, giving tours of the facility, or supervising the weight-training and cardiovascular equipment areas. Fitness trainers and instructors also may promote their facilities and instruction through social media, by writing newsletters or blog posts, or by creating posters and flyers.
Group fitness instructors organize and lead group exercise classes, which may include cardiovascular exercises, muscle strengthening, or stretching. Some instructors create a routine or select exercises for participants to follow, and they then choose music that is appropriate to the movement. Others teach prechoreographed routines that were created by fitness companies or organizations. They may lead classes that use specific exercise equipment, such as stationary bicycles; teach a specific conditioning method, such as yoga; or instruct specific age groups, such as seniors or youths.
Most fitness trainers or instructors have certification related to the area of fitness in which they specialize. Personal trainers usually must be certified before they begin working with clients or with members of a gym or health club. Group fitness instructors may begin work without certification, but employers often encourage or require them to get their credentials. Most fitness instructors receive certification for their preferred type of training, such as yoga, kickboxing, or strength training.
Many organizations offer certification. For example the National Commission for Certifying Agencies (NCCA) accredits certifying organizations in the fitness and wellness industry, including several that offer personal trainer or general certification. In addition, some private companies offer certification in the types of classes they offer.
Customer-service skills. Many fitness trainers and instructors sell their services, motivating clients to hire them as personal trainers or to sign up for the classes they lead. Fitness trainers and instructors must therefore be encouraging, friendly, and polite to maintain relationships with their clients.
Personal trainers may advance to a head trainer position and become responsible for hiring and overseeing the personal training staff or for bringing in new personal training clients. Fitness trainers and instructors also may go into business for themselves or open their own fitness centers.
The median annual wage for fitness trainers and instructors was $40,700 in May 2021. The median wage is the wage at which half the workers in an occupation earned more than that amount and half earned less. The lowest 10 percent earned less than $22,960, and the highest 10 percent earned more than $75,940.
As employers continue to recognize the benefits of health and fitness programs for their employees, incentives to join gyms or other types of health clubs are expected to increase the need for fitness trainers and instructors. For example, some organizations may open their own exercise facilities onsite to promote employee wellness.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Fitness Trainers and Instructors, at -care-and-service/fitness-trainers-and-instructors.htm (visited March 16, 2023).
Regular exercise is one of the best things you can do for your health. It has many benefits, including improving your overall health and fitness, and reducing your risk for many chronic diseases. There are many different types of exercise; it is important that you pick the right types for you. Most people benefit from a combination of them:
The fitness training program is a program that allows you to work with a trainer who will develop a customized routine for you. You can also sign up for small group sessions or take 30-minute express circuit training classes.
Many 24 Hour Fitness gyms throughout the US have closed recently, but if you still have one near you, I recommend it over Planet Fitness. It has Olympic barbells, bumper plates, platforms, and functional fitness areas. 24 Hour Fitness also has a wider selection of machines and more amenities than Planet Fitness.
Like Planet Fitness, Anytime Fitness is an ideal gym for beginners and general fitness enthusiasts. However, you can usually find a squat rack and lifting platform at Anytime Fitness as well as dumbbells heavier than 50lbs. Powerlifters and strength athletes can train there just as easily as recreational gym-goers.
You may only be starting to take the first steps on the road to fitness. Or you may be excited about exercise and want to improve your results. Either way, a well-rounded fitness training plan is essential. Add these five elements to your fitness program to have a balanced routine.
Aerobic activity, also known as cardio or endurance activity, is the core of most fitness training programs. Aerobic activity or exercise causes you to breathe faster and more deeply. The breathing boosts how much oxygen is in the blood. The heart will beat faster, which sends more blood flow to the muscles and back to the lungs.
Strength training is another key part of a fitness training plan. Muscular fitness can help you increase bone strength and muscle fitness. And it can help you stay at a healthy weight or lose weight. It also can improve your skills in doing everyday activities. Aim to do strength training of all the major muscle groups at least twice a week.
The muscles in the stomach area, also called abdomen, lower back and pelvis are known as the core muscles. Core muscles help protect the back and connect upper and lower body movements. Core strength is a key part of a well-rounded fitness training program.
Core exercises help train the muscles to support the spine in the back. And they help to use the upper and lower body muscles more effectively. So what counts as a core exercise? A core exercise is any exercise that uses the trunk of the body without support. Some core exercises are bridges, planks, situps and fitness ball exercises. 041b061a72